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   2016| June  | Volume 7 | Issue 1  
    Online since December 19, 2017

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Profile of autopsy in a Tertiary Hospital in Abuja, Nigeria: A ten-year review
SM Amin, EH Azu Sonnie, T Ogungbayi
June 2016, 7(1):43-48
Background: Hospital autopsy though acknowledged to be an important health care component is on significant decline worldwide. We present the autopsy rate of a tertiary hospital in a developing country. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analytic study of the autopsy records of the department of Histopathology and the Health records department of the National Hospital Abuja. Results: The crude autopsy rate in the hospital is 11% with an approximate annual rate of 86 autopsies. The commonest age group autopsied is the 31 to 40 year cohort, predominantly males in all ages. Coma, haemorrhagic and cardiac shock are the commonest immediate cause of death whilst cardiovascular lesions are the predominant underlying cause of death. Conclusions: Autopsy rate is low and gradually declining in the National Hospital Abuja . A concerted effort from clinician, pathologist, policy-makers and the general public is needed to arrest the trend.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Correlation of viral load to intestinal parasitosis in HIV seropositive patients attending U.I.T.H., Ilorin
AA Joseph, GH Ano-Edward
June 2016, 7(1):49-61
Background: Intestinal parasitosis is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Many researchers have defined the spectrum of intestinal parasites in HIV seropositive Nigerians at various levels of CD4+ counts. There is paucity of information on the relationship between intestinal parasitosis and viral load among Nigerians living with HIV/AIDS. Objective: To correlate the pattern and density of intestinal parasitosis in HIV seropositive individuals, to the degree of their viraemia. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional study involving 500 participants comprising 250 HIV positive patients as test and 250 HIV negative patients as control. Participants were from the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) clinic and GOPD of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin. Collected blood and stool samples were screened for HIV infection, CD4+ cell count and HIV viral load estimation and gastrointestinal parasites. Result: Intestinal parasitosis of 60.8% in HIV positive patients was significantly higher than 16.4% in HIV negative controls (p< 0.05). Single intestinal parasitosis is commoner (48.8%) than multiple parasitosis (12.0%) in the HIV positive test group. Parasites identified from test subjects were Ascaris lumbricoides (10.4%), Hookworm (3.6%), Strongyloides stercoralis larva (2%) and the Coccidian parasites (55.6%). The mean CD4+ count of the HIV patients was 232.1±189.3 (range 1-882 cells/μl) while the mean viral load was 372,306±824150.7 (range 20 – 7,369,327 copies/ml). Intestinal parasitosis was seen at CD4 count ≤ 207cells/μl and a viral load >7085 copies/ml. Conclusion: In this study, intestinal parasitosis occurs in HIV infected with markedly depressed immunity evident by a low CD4+ cell count and high viral load.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Prevalence of positive faecal occult blood test in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
JO Idemudia, ES Idogun
June 2016, 7(1):27-31
Background: Faecal occult blood test is a laboratory test used to access stool samples for hidden (occult) blood. It is an important screening tool for colorectal cancer. Subject and Methods: The faecal specimens were mainly requests sent to the department of chemical pathology from the accident and emergency words, consultant out-patients clinic and various in-patient wards at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, between January and December 2014 (12 months). The stools samples were analyzed using the guaiac-impregnated paper slides. Results: Of the 122 faecal occult blood tests done in the department of Chemical pathology, UBTH, during the period, only 2 were positive corresponding to just 1.6%, with one FOBT positive for the males (1.35%) and females (2.08%) respectively. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the low incidence of colorectal cancer using FOBT among Nigerians living in the Niger-Delta region. Although with more people embracing western lifestyle and minimal exposure to sunlight, we advise that more awareness has to be created for people to routinely screen for occult blood in faeces and those positive or negative with high index of clinical suspicion should further be evaluated with sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  997 135 -
A case of malignant fibrothecoma of the ovary
GH Ano-Edward, AO Fehintola, OA Ogunlaja, OT Awotunde, OI Aaron, OI Amole, EM Lasisi, KE Jooda
June 2016, 7(1):63-69
Fibrothecomas are mesenchymal tumors deriving from the ovarian stromal and consisting of theca-like elements and fibrous tissue. They are common, but their malignant counterpart is extraordinarily rare. Classical malignant fibrothecomas are said to show four or more mitotic figures per 10 high power fields. Here, we describe a rare case of malignant ovarian fibrothecoma in a perimenopausal woman who presented with a large pelvic mass and menorrhagia. Preoperative diagnosis was advanced ovarian malignancy. Total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and partial omentectomy, together with resection of a length of terminal ileum was done. Patient however died 9th postoperative day from complications related to the extensive surgery. Postoperative histology revealed mitotically active intestinal secondary with primary ovarian tumour containing four mitotic figure per 10 high power fields in keeping with malignant fibrothecoma.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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The pathological features of primary liver cell carcinomas in Nigerians: A preliminary study of sixty-one consecutive cases from Ile-Ife, Nigeria
AE Omonisi, OS Ojo
June 2016, 7(1):33-41
Aim: To describe the pathological features of primary liver cell cancer as seen in a tertiary health care facility in Nigeria and compare these features with those recorded in other settings. Methods: This is a retrospective study in which liver surgical biopsies and open biopsies specimens recorded over an 18 years' period were analysed with respect to age, sex and pathological features. Statistical analysis was performed using simple statistical methods. Results: Sixty-one cases consisting 51 specimens obtained from needle biopsy, 5 open biopsies and 5 autopsy biopsies were analysed. There was a marked male preponderance with a male to female ratio of 2.1 : 1. The peak age of occurrence was the 6th decade of life (mean age was 32.8%). The most common mode of presentation by these patients was abdominal swelling and most of the patients presented late. Hepatocellular carcinoma was the most common primary liver carcinoma and its shows strong association with hepatitis B virus but weak association with liver cirrhosis. Cholangiocarcinoma was the second most common and mostly seen in the females in this study. Majority of the tumours in this series were moderately differentiated. Conclusion: This report show that the pathological features demonstrate certainm fundamental differences between primary liver cell carcinoma in Nigerian patients and those in other parts of the world.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  935 113 -
The quality of pathology and its reporting on cancer survival: The need for proforma reporting
Olorunda Rotimi, Darlington Obaseki
June 2016, 7(1):9-16
Background: The histopathology report provides information that facilitates accurate staging of patients with cancer and also serves as a tool for the assessment of the quality of pathology in general. But, however the variability in form, content and quality of the pathology report often obviates this important role in the management of cancer patients Materials and Methods: This report reviews the literature on the quality of pathology and its reporting on cancer prognostication and survival and in particular the role structured reporting formats play in improving the quality and utility of such reports. The review was done primarily through search of the databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed covering the period 1950 to 2010 with key words quality, cancer, pathology, histopathology, report, proforma and synoptic. Result: The informational content of many routine pathology reports is shown to be inadequate for quality patient management. Conclusion: Proforma reporting of cancer cases is thus recommended.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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The need to equip FMCPath graduates with more academic skills
PO Olatunji, Olusegun Ojo
June 2016, 7(1):5-8
Full text not available  [PDF]
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Effect of diet on serum lipid profile in healthy Nigerians
FE Olumese, ES Idogun
June 2016, 7(1):17-26
Background: Serum lipid is a screening tool in different disease conditions such as diabetes mellitus, renal disease and ischemic heart disease. Its determination is traditionally done after an overnight fast. However, there is a growing argument that fasting blood specimen may not be absolutely necessary for a plasma lipid analysis. In order to test this concept, this study was undertaking to evaluate the effect a standard Nigerian meal will have on serum lipid at 30 min and 2 hr postprandial, and also determined the cardiovascular risk ratio (CRR) and the artherogenic index (AI) at fasting, 30 min and 2hr postprandial. Methods: A cross-sectional study that involved fifty healthy subjects aged 20-29 years ((male and female). Participants with medical illness were excluded. The subjects were educated on the study and consent form administered. Subjects fasted over night for 12 hour. Blood was taken from the peripheral veins at the 12th hour after fasting and were thereafter served standard Nigerian meal (rice and beef) that weighed 450 g with (250 ml) water. At 30 min and 2 hr blood was collected for lipid analysis. Serum lipid assays were performed using Reagent kits manufactured by Randox (England) and LDL-C was determined by Friedewald Calculation. Results: There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in total cholesterol at 30 min and 2 hr postprandial compared to fasting, while serum triglyceride was significantly (p<0.05) reduced at 30 min and 2 hr. There were no changes in serum HDL-cholesterol at fasting, 30 min and 2 hr. The LDL-C and non-HDLC were significantly (p<0.05) increased at 30 min and 2 hr when compared to fasting. The cardiovascular risk ratio at 30 min and 2 hr postprandial was significantly (p<0.05) reduced when compared to fsating. The artherogenic index ratio were reduced at 30 min and 2 hr postprandial when compared to fasting. Conclusion: If the risk assessment of an individual is based on values of serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and non HDL cholesterol, fasting specimen will be most desirable. But if the risk assessment is to be considered objectively using the CRR and AI, a fasting blood specimen will not be absolutely necessary especially when the physician needs to take an urgent decision about a patient's clinical condition.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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