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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 10  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 122-125

Hematological parameters of children with sickle cell anemia in steady and crisis states in Zaria, Nigeria

Department of Paediatrics, Haematology/Oncology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University/Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Yakubu Abubakar
Department of Paediatrics, Haematology/Oncology Unit, Ahmadu Bello University/Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/atp.atp_22_19

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Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is the most common and severest form of sickle cell disease. It affects about 3% of the Nigerian population with a high mortality in children. Hematological parameters are routinely used in the monitoring of SCA patients and might vary in crisis and steady states. Aims and Objectives: This study was aimed at comparing the hematological parameters of SCA patients in steady state with those in hemolytic and vaso-occlusive crisis states. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study carried out at the pediatric outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital in North West Nigeria. We recruited 170 SCA patients in steady state or in crisis state. Five milliliters of blood sample was collected for full blood count analysis using the Sysmex Xt 2000i automated hematology analyzer. Results: Hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) levels for SCA patients in steady state were 8.28 ± 1.64 g/dl and 21.8 ± 4.04% while in vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) state were 7.81 ± 1.37 g/dl and 22.05 ± 1.37% and those with hemolytic crisis were 4.45 ± 0.12 and 13.35 ± 0.67, respectively. Total white blood cell (WBC) count in steady and VOC states was 14.51 ± 5.21 × 109/l and 17.46 ± 5.26 × 109/l, respectively, while those in hemolytic crisis had WBC of 14.92 ± 5.82 × 106/l. ANOVA test was 0.0001, 0.0001, and 0.03, respectively, which indicates a statistically significant difference between the groups. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) in steady state were 76.67 fl ± 9.02, 27.18 pg ± 4.36, and 35.17 g/dl ± 4.25, while in VOC state, they were 74.88 fl ± 11.60, 27.24 pg ± 3.70, and 35.49 g/dl ± 1.42 and, in anemic crisis state, they were 76.63 ± 11.74, 26.71 ± 3.78 and 35.03 ± 1.20, respectively. Conclusion: Hematological parameters were lower during crisis states, although most of these were not significantly different from those in steady state apart from the WBC count, Hb, and HCT. Therefore, routine monitoring of hematological parameters should remain an important component in the management of SCA children.

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