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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 96-101

Hepatocellular carcinoma in Zaria: An analysis of the morphology and associated risk factors

1 Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Usman Bello
Department of Morbid Anatomy and Forensic Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background: There is substantial global variation in the prevalence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This variation depends on the prevailing aetiology and/or risk factors present in any particular locale, thus the need to document our experience with HCC in Zaria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15years morphological assessment of all diagnosed cases of HCC. Microscopic features detailing different pathologies were analysed and graded using the Edmond Steiner grading system.1 Risks factors documented in accompanying case files were collated, the HBV and HCV statuses were determined by serological assays during patients' initial work up while alcoholism was determined based on quantity consumed per day over specified period. Results: Overall, sixty two cases were studied comprising 39 males and 23 females with a M: F ratio of 1.7:1. The ages ranged from 15 to 74years and a peak in the 5th decade of life with 21cases. The hepatotropic viruses were the commonest risk factors; HBV-35.5%, HCV- 9.7% and HBV/HCV co infection- 12.5%. Overall, chronic hepatitis accounted for 58% of cases. Other risk factors included alcohol consumption and morbid obesity which accounted for 6.5% and 3.2% cases respectively while cirrhosis and steatohepatitis accounted for 46.8% and 25.8% respectively. 66.1% cases were Edmond Steiner grades I and II diseases. Only 2 cases of clear cell HCC and solitary cases of sarcomatoid and sclerosing HCC variants were recorded. Conclusion: The common risk factors for HCC were the hepatotropic viruses.

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