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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 67-76

Prevalence of seropositive blood donors for hepatitis B, C and HIV viruses at Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria

1 Department of Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja, Nigeria
2 Department of Microbiology, Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria
3 Department of Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Nigeria
4 Department of Haematology, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
O D Kassim
Department of Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

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Background: Hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections constitute immense burden in developing countries including Nigeria with wide variability in the prevalence of co-infection and clinical syndromes in various regions. Objectives: This study set out, to determine the prevalence rate of these infections and their various co-infections among the blood donors at the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti and to determine the more vulnerable age-group in this region. Methods: From July 2007 to July 2009, 662 donors were studied. Blood samples taken from the donors were screened for HIV and HCV antibodies by double ELISA technique, and for HbsAg by ELISA technique. Data entry and processing were done using EPI-INFO version 6 and SPSS version 15. Data were compared using 2-tailed chi-square test and Yates correction or Fisher exact test when applicable. Probability value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Overall, 7.9% of the donors were sero-positive for HbsAg, 7.3% for HCV antibody and 5% for HIV antibody. Co-infection rate of HIV/HCV was 1.1%, HIV/HBV was 1.2%, HBV/HCV was 2.1% and HIV/HBV/HCV was 0.6%. The age-group 20-30 years had the highest prevalence for HCV (17.9%), HBV/HCV co-infection (2.4%) and HIV/HBV/HCV infection (1.2%). Up to 57.6% of HIV infected blood donors have co-infection with either HBV or HCV or both. Conclusion: This study detected a high prevalence rate of HBV, HCV and HIV infections among Ido-Ekiti blood donors. All co-infections were detected at lower rate compared to single infections. The age-group 20-30 years were the most vulnerable group to these infections. A high percentage of HIV sero-positive donors had other co-infections. Adequate screening of blood donors and widespread awareness programme on these infections especially among the youth, immunization against HBV are mandatory in curtailing these infections. Follow-up incidence study in this field is recommended.

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